Date(s) - 05/05/2014
Three vignettes of on-going research will be used to illustrate the concept of measurement and feedback control to achieve physiological stasis. The first of these is the development of a minimally invasive implantable point-of-care (POC) bioanalytical microsystem for rapid deployment and continual monitoring of intramuscular glucose and lactate via dual responsive amperometric enzyme biosensors. This engineered microsystem is being developed for use by first responders to allow multi-analyte monitoring of key metabolites of hemodynamic stress for the management of trauma induced hemorrhage. Here feedback control is via the trauma physician. The second is the development of biologically responsive hydrogel microspheres for the delivery of drugs that serve to modulate the release profile via molecular feedback control. This engineered material system is being developed for the treatment of chronic wounds and exploits the elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to cleave a tethered peptide that is conjugated to an MMP inhibitor. The inhibitor once released, modulates MMP to targeted activity levels within the chronic wound environment. The third of these is the synthesis of functionalized carbon nanotubes used in direct biosensors, advanced biofuel cells and electronic noses. Here, direct electron transfer between the carbonaceous materials and the metallic electrode allows for array sensing and/or control of enzyme activity. These three systems each encompass the notion of integration of the measurement of a gap between an actual and a reference level and a mechanism to close that gap via feedback – a control loop. These systems are integrated, the first at the level of discrete sub-systems acting through an operator, the second at the level of molecular events acting through molecular phenomena of mass transport and reaction kinetics, and the third at the level of electronic transport and redox events.
Anthony Guiseppi-Elie is Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Professor of Bioengineering, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Center for Bioelectronics, Biosensors and Biochips at Clemson University. He is Founder and Scientific Director of ABTECH Scientific, Inc., a near-patient biomedical diagnostics company located in the Biotechnology Research Park, Richmond, Virginia. He holds the Sc.D. in materials science and engineering from MIT, the M.Sc. in chemical engineering from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) and the B.Sc. (First Class Honors) with majors in Analytical and Applied Chemistry from the University of the West Indies (UWI). Tony has spent 15 years in intrapreneurial and entrepreneurial industrial research and product development before becoming a full professor of Chemical and Life Science Engineering and of Emergency Medicine at VCU/MCV in 1998. In 2006, he joined Clemson as the Dow Chemical Professor. His research interests are in engineered bioresponsive systems in the service of human health and medicine (130 papers, 3381 citations, h-index = 31). He was the 2013 Avis Professor in Pharmaceutics at the University of Tennessee, a 2012-2013 IEEE-EMBS Distinguished Lecturer, a 2012 Microsystems Distinguished Lecturer at the University of Maryland, a recipient of the 2003 “Pioneers in Biomedical Engineering” Lecture Award from Purdue University and an Invited Lecturer in the MIT Program in Polymer Science and Technology. Tony is Editor-in-Chief of Bioengineering, and Associate Editor of Biomedical Microdevices. He is a Fellow of AIMBE, a Sr. member of IEEE, a lifetime member of AIChE and hold memberships in RSC, AAAS, ACS, MRS and BMES. At Clemson Tony teaches engineering materials, biological transport phenomena, biomolecular engineering, biosensors and bioelectronics, and nanobiotechnology.